44 BC: March; Julius Caesar is assassinated in Rome. Octavian, learns that Caesar adopted him as his son in his will as he heads back to Rome from a military camp in Apollonia. Upon his return, he politically attacks Caesar’s enemies for murdering him and he attacks Mark Antony for not doing enough to protect him.

43 BC: April; The Battle of Mutina is fought in Italy. Mark Antony heads for Gaul. August; Octavian is elected Consul by a terrified Senate. November; Octavian, Mark Antony, and Lepidus form The Second Triumvirate near Bologna, north of Rome.

42 BC: October; The two Battles of Philippi are fought in Macedonia. Cassius is defeated in the first one and Brutus is defeated in the second.

41 BC: February; The Battle of Perusia concludes in Italy. Lucius Antonius, the brother of Mark Antony, and Fulvia, the wife of Mark Antony, are defeated. Fulvia flees to Athens. Octavian comes to terms with Lucius Antonius and appoints him magistrate of Spain.

40 BC: September; The Treaty of Brundisium ; Octavian and Mark Antony come to terms, and a civil war is avoided. Octavian offers the hand of his sister Octavia in marriage to Antony. He accepts. This brings a period of good will between the two of them.

39 BC: Spring; The Treaty of Misenum; Mark Antony and Octavian meet with Sextus Pompey. An agreement is made that Sextus will stop his piracy and allow the grain ships from the east to sail past Sicily on to Rome. For this, Octavian and Antony make concessions to Sextus on a number of issues.

37 BC: Spring; Treaty of Tarentum—40 BC. Octavian and Mark Antony clear up misunderstandings and extend the ‘Second Triumvirate’ for another five years. The story of the Treaty of Tarentum is told in Octavian Chronicle #9, Battle of Naulochus.

36 BC: September; The Sea Battle of Naulochus is fought off the coast of Sicily. Sextus Pompey is defeated and his blockade of the grain ships is lifted. Sextus escapes to the east and is killed in battle by an army of Mark Antony.

34 BC: Autumn; The Donations of Alexandria are announced by Mark Antony and Cleopatra in Egypt, causing great concern in Rome about Antony’s intentions and loyalties.

32 BC: November; Rome declares War against Cleopatra and Egypt.

31 BC: September; The Sea Battle of Actium is fought off the coast of Greece. Antony and Cleopatra’s land and sea forces are defeated by Octavian’s forces which are commanded by his childhood friend, Marcus Agrippa. Antony and Cleopatra sail back to Egypt.

30 BC: Summer; Octavian takes Egypt. Antony and Cleopatra are defeated.

29 BC: Summer; Octavian returns to Rome in total victory.

27 BC: January; Octavian takes the name Caesar Augustus. He rules the The Roman Empire in relative peace for the next forty-two years.